nav-left cat-right
cat-right

Indexation

What procedures of indexation of egoes-documents?

The indexation of egoes-documents is worked out for a research of automated information. The procedures of indexation are so caused by service to be productive to the users, that they are researchers or not specialists. How to answer questions such:

* « Which are the Japanese newspapers written between IXth and XIth centuries or those of the passengers in Europe of the ére Meiji translations of which are available in french.

* « What are egoes-documents treating marriage in 1850 and which are written by women of French nationality? »
* « What are the books of laboratory handwritten or published in scientific disciplines? »
* « What are the Chinese autobiographies translated into French in XXth century? »

The descriptive catalogue of egoes-documents must be able to provide all cases allowing to answer these questionings during connection to Personality. That’s why, identification and classification of this descriptive units are essential to be able to achieve it fast their performed seizure once. The indexation of egoes-documents is also primordial because it demonstrates immediately the documentary and literary interest of the contents of these texts. It is above all a question of determining the procedures which allow to pass of a document not represented in a group structured by data which will constitute so many points since then documents.  Indexation must also provide, in a most objective possible manner, a complete description which preserves peculiarity and diversity of egoes-documents. Must she then be worked out on the techniques of treatment of the natural language and/or on the theories of the presentation of the person in texts?

The procedure of indexation of egoes-documents can represent as a system which includes the addition of descripteurs in an original text according to various parameters:  forms of ego-document, including material description, datings (dates of writing, covered periods, publication), historical context, occupation of the author, etc. This descripteurs also obeys procedures to spot key words which allow a specific documentary syntax egoes-documents from nature and from form of texts to index 7:

Structure

* texts without often clean, particular structure in the newspaper
* not much structured texts (big divisions, under titles, “uncertain” dates)
* hard structured texts (understanding constant entries such as the place, dating, the hour, …)
* composite texts (which sections give levels different from structuring with variable entries)

Volume

Some pages in several thousand pages which they can divide into three groups:

* short text (a page, up to about 35 lines, handwritten or printed)
* text runs (of 4 or 5 pages, handwritten or printed)
* long text (beyond 5 pages, handwritten or printed)

Reference domain

* identified and limited domain (historical, sociological, scientific and/or technical, specialized, literary, etc)
* composite or broad and identified domain (scientific and/or technical, at a more general level)
* encyclopedic or badly circumscribed domain (literary corpus, generic corpus, etc)
* very specialized domain which can link up group of texts concerning domains related to

An ego-document can however insert all that concerns a historical period dated precisely, but also a group of evidence on a particular middle or a place today missing. The indexeur of ego-document, researcher, amateur or neophyte, must therefore obey instructions according to level and according expanse of the analysis of ego-document. The level of the analysis is fixed on the access to the contents of the text (understanding and interpretation), or on the only plan of expression (direct extraction of terms or phrases found in the text), while the extensive analysis implicates the reading of the entirety of the text and that of a subset (paratextes and/or métatextes).

According to this gate of analysis, the indexation of egoes-documents can be made at one of these four levels:

LEVEL 1: Simple indexation

At this level, they simply like to identify ego-document in reference to other indexed texts, without making sure of the significant character of indexation. Certain terms can be excluded from the procedure of indexation and the access to sense remains not appropriate because there is not reasoning and cooperation between key words. A descriptive bibliography, as that of the Circle of the bookshop for Electre, offers this indexation that can apply to corpus of texts of any nature.

LEVEL 2: Descriptive indexation
At this second level, indexation takes into account the form of the text and the context of writing. The choice of descripteurs is subjected here to the results of reading of valuation which can be various natures: frequency of the appearance of an element in the text, total structure, But it does not have recourse to it in sense at this level as for quick indexation after the only reading of certain parties of the document, without a control of a list of authority being performed. The most part of the catalogues of the public libraries test such various methods of indexation which correspond to requests for a general catalogue.

LEVEL 3: Reasoned indexation

It indicates a lexical reasoning on sense and contents of ego-document which leads to a cogitation on partial or complete synonymies and on polysemies or homonymies. The ambiguity of the syntax of indexation is treated by undertaking choices, particularly exclusion and dismissal towards other cases. The necessity to index also the form of texts appears with a general thesaurus, as makes it the National Library of France with BRANCH(Directory of encyclopedic and alphabetic authority-material unified). The analysis of texts is however not much deepened, but the multiplication of descripteurs allows an easier location on the whole of registration of copyright. It is this level there that Personality must aim, following the example of the System Academic d’ Information (Sudoc) <http://corail.sudoc.abes.fr> who for listed theses takes back the summary in French and/or in English.

LEVEL 4: Interpretative indexation
To exceed the level of simple name and enunciation, it is necessary to lean on group of theories and of existent linguistic knowledge of recent researches, as well as on analyses on the whole context established by a specialist of domain and subjects covered by ego-document. To give an account of effects of the most complex senses, an understanding in depth of the text is necessary to acquire a presentation of contents allowing interpretations. It is the most well brought up objective to be attained where Personality becomes a true system of information, métadonnée able of linking up egoes-documents with universal anthropological topics, footbridges transgénériques, etc, from research works published or introduced during symposiums. The reading of an article criticizes on an ego-document,so signalled in the descriptive notice of listing, would constitute a “summary” and encourage to index it under this approach to be able to take back up criticism, which becomes then a kind of theoretical summary, in the entire text. These researches are still partial, but the theoretical perspectives opened by new technologies (understanding of egoes-documents, studies of historical phenomena and relational networks, etc) are enlarged as symposium mentioned it Egoes-documents at a time of the electronics.

By settling the objective of a reasoned indexation, egoes-documents can so benefit from the practice of the Directory of encyclopedic and alphabetic authority-material unified (BRANCH 9) developed by the National Library of France, but with a specific treatment. Terms chosen to be BRANCH do not suit in effect always for egoes-documents. For instance, to index a study to autobiographic type, term “Autobiography ” at the head of star subject is used in the peculiar, followed possibly by an adjective of nationality or of period in subdivision:

Autobiography
French autobiography ** XIXth century

The plural “Autobiographies ” serves on the contrary for indexing anthologies of autobiographies. Star’s head ” autobiographic Novel ” is used to index texts which are autobiographic novels; having followed of subdivision ” History and criticism “, it serves for indexing studies to the autobiographic novel. Term “Biography ” is used on the contrary as subdivision of form instead of “Memories “, rejected term.

Memo of a lined up girl will so be indexed:
Beauvoir, Simone of (1908-1986) ** Biography
or else:
Beauvoir, Simone of ** Children and youth
or will not be indexed by the whole!

Memo beyond the grave will be indexed in:
Chateaubriand, Fr. R. (dates of life) ** Biography

With BRANCH, it is not therefore possible to differentiate a biography of an autobiographic work; term “Autobiography ” is excluded in effect to index an autobiographic work, because it serves for a study on autobiographic type.
For a study concerning the techniques of narration to the first person, they use expression ” Tales to the first person “.Star’s head subject private “Diaries, followed or not of an adjective of nationality, serves for indexing a general study to this type, including several authors:

French diaries

In the catalogue BN-Opale more <http: // www.bnf.fr>, they find other stars subjects relating to the treatment of the person in literature:Identity, psychology in literature
Mémorialistes
Me in literature
Narcissism in literature

Certain terms BRANCH are also used only behind author’s name: “Diary” is used only in subdivision, that is to say behind author’s name. But “Diary” can be subdivision of subject as well as form, that is as he can also index work itself or a study concerning work. In general, it indicates a specific writer:

Amiel, Henry Frederick (1821-1881) ** Diary

Also let us say that with the plural “Diaries ” literary type is indicated.

Other terms or phrases « Manuscripts, facsimiles » and “Correspondence” are also used in subdivision, everything as « Notes, drafts » which was preferred to term “Books “, rejected term indicating at the same time a type and one support10. “Children and youth” are also used behind writer’s name, but phrase can be used for an autobiographic work as well as biographical, therefore written by other one. You should not forget phrase finally « Personal tales » which is not used behind writer’s name but behind category of persons, or historical event, to express the idea of personal evidence:

French passengers ** personal Tales
First world war ** Polish personal Tales

With obligatory minimal descriptions which concern the description of the subject of the document,generic membership, support and form of ego-document, indexation of Personality must also follow the recommendations of a Directory of Indexation Subject of Egoes-documents (RISE) 11) which can be copied on BRANCH, but with some modifications so that it is useful in social, political, literary history, etc, and to allow so the creation of an original thesaurus. The thesaurus of egoes-documents must include a list of authorities, but representing one first documentary language founded on a structuring prioritized of one or several domains of connaissance12 ». Everything as for subject Subject BRANCHES, the list of authority of the Directory of Indexation of Egoes-documents is not a priori constituted but according to the needs of indexation and evolves on the basis of proposals made by the network of his users. The structure of the notices of RISE will insert therefore inevitably following descriptions: subjects (common names, proper names) ,subdivisions (geographical, chronological, generic, forms) and indications of excluded terms managed by links hypertexts and dismissals in others notices13.

Gate simplified by indexation Of Egodocuments

* COMMON NAMES

o Word or phrase

Subject perhaps a word or a phrase which can be in itself or be specified:
Adolescence
Workshops of writing

point out: phrases subjects including the coordinating conjunction “and ” indicate the putting in contact of two notions, most often when job is common and frozen:
Children and youth

o Translation

The choice of subjects in French must allow a translation in several languages with the aim of multilingual thesaurus:
Autoinvention = Selfiction rather than autobiographic Novel

point out: term autoinvention is also part of generic subdivision

o peculiar or plural

Subjects belong to the peculiar or to the plural:
Women / Feminism

o Polysemy and homonymous

Chosen subject must avoid any polysemous ambiguity; the homonymous will be differentiated:
Admission (right) / Admission (literature)

o Qualifier

It not there no use of qualifier when expression is definite enough:
Religious confessions

The qualifier put in parentheses allows to identify:
a domain: Me (philosophy)
a branch of discipline: Me (Pédopsychiatrie)
a category of objects
take away homonymy: Criticism (genetics)

the use of the peculiar or the plural

o Exclusion from terms

Excluded subjects allow:
the abduction of synonymy:
Diaries (excluded)
Personal newspapers (kept)
the treatment of particular subjects: abbreviations, acronyms, historical periods, …
the treatment of reversals and syntactic building
the treatment of specific terms and antonyms
the treatment of ancient forms

o dismissals point out:
equivalences: Letters to see Correspondence

* PROPER NAMES
It is at the same time about the author and about the subject of ego document. Other proper names are persons’ names, groups, geographical names.

o persons’ names and names of groups:
Léautaud, Paul (1872-1956)

Association for the autobiography and autobiographic heritage

o The geographical names
Algeria – History – 1954-1962 (War of Algeria) – War newspapers

o Titles of serial publications
Error to Rousseau (periodical; France; n ° June 0th, 1992)

o Titles of writings:
Newspaper of the year of plague

* GEOGRAPHICAL SUBDIVISION

Byron, George Gordon (baron ; 1788-1824) – Voyages – Alpes (Suisse)

* SUBDIVISION CHRONOLOGIQUE

Lorsque la période couvre deux siècles, on attribue deux indexations sujet identiques :
Corse (France) – Histoire – 1347-1768 (Domination génoise)
Corse (France) – Histoire – 18e siècle

* SUBDIVISION GENERIQUE, FORME ET SUPPORT (extraits)

GENRES     FORMES     SUPPORTS
Autobiographie     Autographe     Agenda
Carnets     Biobliographie     Bloc-note
Chroniques     Catalogue     Cahier

Correspondence Drawings Notebook
Maintain Inquiry Book
Personal newspaper Study of case CD-ROM
Newspaper of trip Exhibition Facsimile
Book of edge Extracts Manuscript
Handwritten book of count Register
Pound of reason Monograph Directory
Guide Sites plan
Memories Supplement Typescript
Correspondance